He is holding a partially rolled papyrus scroll in his left hand. His right hand must have held a brush, now missing. The most striking aspect of this sculpture is the face, particularly the elaborately inlaid eyes: they consist of a piece of red-veined white magnesite, in which a piece of slightly truncated rock crystal was placed. The front part of the crystal was carefully polished. The back side was covered with a layer of organic material, creating the color of the iris and also probably serving as an adhesive. The entire eye was then held in the socket by two large copper clips welded on the back.
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A line of black paint defines the eyebrows. The hands, fingers, and fingernails are sculpted with a remarkable delicacy.
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His chest is broad and the nipples are marked by two wooden dowels. The statue was cleaned in , although the process merely reduced the wax overpainting. This restoration brought out the well- conserved ancient polychromy. A scribe at work The scribe is portrayed at work, which is unusual in Egyptian statuary. Although no king was ever portrayed in this pose, it seems that it was originally used for members of the royal family, such as the king's sons or grandsons, as was the case for the sons of Didufri 4th Dynasty , who were represented in this position.
Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. King Menkaure and queen.
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The two figures stand side-by-side, gazing into eternity. He represents the epitome of kingship and the ideal human male form. She is the ideal female. He wears the nemes on his head, a long artificial beard, and a wraparound kilt with central tab, all of which identify him as king.
In his hand he clasps what may be abbreviated forms of the symbols of his office. His high cheekbones, bulbous nose, slight furrows running diagonally from his nose to the corners of his mouth, and lower lip thrust out in a slight pout, may be seen on her as well, although her face has a feminine fleshiness, which his lacks. Traces of red paint remain on his face and black paint on her wig.
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His broad shoulders, taut torso, and muscular arms and legs, all modeled with subtlety and restraint, convey a latent strength. In contrast, her narrow shoulders and slim body, whose contours are apparent under her tight-fitting sheath dress, represent the Egyptian ideal of femininity. As is standard for sculptures of Egyptian men, his left foot is advanced, although all his weight remains on the right foot.
Typically, Egyptian females are shown with both feet together, but here, the left foot is shown slightly forward. Although they stand together sharing a common base and back slab, and she embraces him, they remain aloof and share no emotion, either with the viewer or each other. Who is represented here? The base of the statue which is usually inscribed with the names and titles of the subject represented, was left unfinished and never received the final polish of most of the rest of the statue.
She, however, had only a mastaba tomb, while two unidentified queens of Menkaura had small pyramids. Others have suggested that she represents the goddess Hathor, although she exhibits no divine attributes. However, in private sculptures when a man and woman are shown together and their relationship is indicated, they are most often husband and wife. The Code of Hammurabi.
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Babylon Modern Iraq. The Law Code of Hammurabi is the emblem of the Mesopotamian civilization. This high basalt stele erected by the king of Babylon in the 18th century BC is a work of art, history and literature, and the most complete legal compendium of Antiquity, dating back to earlier than the Biblical laws. Carried there by a prince from the neighboring country of Elam in Iran in the 12th century BC, the monument was exhibited on the Susa acropolis among other prestigious Mesopotamian masterpieces.
A legal tradition This basalt stele was erected by King Hammurabi of Babylon — BC probably at Sippar, city of the sun god Shamash, god of justice. Other monuments of this type belonging to a similar tradition were placed in the towns of his kingdom. Two Sumerian legal documents drawn up by Ur-Namma, king of Ur c.
The Hammurabi Code—the most important legal compendium of the ancient Near East, drafted earlier than the Biblical laws—found its sources in these essays. The principal scene depicted shows the king receiving his investiture from Shamash. Remarkable for its legal content, this work is also an exceptional source of information about the society, religion, economy, and history of this period.
The content of the Code The text is written in cuneiform script and the Akkadian language. It is divided into three parts: - a historical prologue relating the investiture of King Hammurabi in his role as "protector of the weak and oppressed," and the formation of his empire and achievements; - a lyrical epilogue summing up his legal work and preparing its perpetuation in the future; - these two literary passages frame a text describing almost three hundred laws and legal decisions governing daily life in the kingdom of Babylon.
The legal part of the text uses everyday language and is here simplified, for the king wanted it to be understood by all. However, the legal decisions are all constructed in the same manner: a phrase in the conditional sets out a problem of law or social order; it is followed by a response in the future tense, in the form of the sanction for the guilty party or the settlement of a situation: "Should an individual do such and such a thing, such and such a thing will happen to him or her. The principal subjects are family law, slavery, and professional, commercial, agricultural and administrative law.
Economic measures set prices and salaries. The longest chapter concerns the family, which formed the basis of Babylonian society. It deals with engagement, marriage and divorce, adultery and incest, children, adoption and inheritance, and the duties of children's nurses. Every aspect of each case is addressed, enabling the greatest number of observations to be made. The significance of the monument The Law Code of Hammurabi is valuable first and foremost as a model, being a treatise on the exercise of judiciary power in the context of Mesopotamian science, in which the particular never governs the general.
The observation of several similar cases does not establish a general and universal principle, or law. It is not a code of laws in the sense that we understand it today, but rather a compendium of legal precedents. Contradictions and illogicalities two similar cases causing different results can be found in the Code, because it deals with particular judgements, from which the most personal elements the names of the protagonists, for example have been removed.
Because justice was a royal prerogative in Mesopotamia, Hammurabi here sets out a selection of the wisest legal decisions that he had to take or ratify. This stele was, however, more than an educational tool. It was a code of the rules and prescriptions established by a sovereign authority, and therefore a code of laws. Not only does it contain a list of judicial rulings, but also a catalogue of the towns and territories annexed to the kingdom of Babylon.
The stele of the Babylonian king Hammurabi constitutes a summary of one of the most prestigious reigns of ancient Mesopotamia.
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Executed in the last years of the sovereign's life, it was a political testament aimed at future princes, for whom it offered a model of wisdom and equity. The Code also served as a literary model for the schools of scribes, who were to copy it for over one thousand years. Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall.
Temple: c. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut.
Near Luxor. New Kingdom. Metropolitan Museum of New York This large kneeling statue once was part of a group of similar figures aligned on the right-hand northern side of the processional way, most probably in the second court of the temple.pop.mail.ruk-com.in.th/ocean-circulation-and-climate-chapter.php
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The pharaoh wears the nemes headdress, and around her neck is a chain of tubular beads from which hangs an amulet of somewhat enigmatic form a double pouch pierced with a thorn? According to the inscription on the base, "Maatkare" Hatshepsut is represented here as "the one who gives Maat to Amun. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters.
Related El Sarcófago de Menkaura (Spanish Edition)
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