Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)


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Bibliographic Information

The human pathology proteome in breast cancer - The Human Protein Atlas

An acceptable viewing speed can be accomplished with a fast home internet connection xDSL , and with a 2 Mbit or faster connection virtual microscopy is very smooth. With more than carefully selected slides the described virtual slide atlas covers the entire spectrum of breast histopathology. The atlas shows the advantages of virtual slides for educational purposes, and it highlights the benefits of web based virtual microscopy.

The main advantage of a virtual slide based approach over conventional digital images is the possibility to view the entire specimen—that is, any part of the tissue section at any magnification. Images in printed textbooks or in conventional digital atlases 13— 15 represent only small selected areas of the tissue section and can only describe the histopathological entity in question to a limited extent. An educational feature easily applied to virtual microscopy is the option to view the specimens as unknowns—that is, without the diagnosis and textual descriptions.

This option was found particularly useful by pathologists in training. The contents of a web based atlas can be updated continuously, and rarities missing from a collection can be included when suitable slides are found. Text descriptions and entity classifications can be updated and adapted to modifications in tumour classifications. In the present atlas we included only short textual descriptions, and provided direct PubMed links to each entity presented in the atlas. With predefined relevant search terms this feature means that users can easily review the latest research articles on each topic.

Before starting to scan slides for the breast histopathology atlas, we made a considerable effort to optimise the image quality of the virtual slides. Several parameters such as choice of the microscope objective, pixel resolution of the CCD camera, autofocus settings, colour temperature, white balance, digital enhancement, and image compression level were balanced to maximise image quality, although still keeping scanning time and web viewing manageable.

With the chosen capture resolution, the total amount of scanned image data in the atlas exceeds 1 TB, but effective image compression reduced the required hard disk storage space to 70 GB. This implies that archiving of virtual slides needed for even a large number of comprehensive atlases is possible and economical with current mainstream computer hardware. By combining a computer controlled motorised microscope with imaging software from the aerial and satellite imaging industry, slide scanning, image processing, and server archiving could be fully automated.

Application development was straightforward and internet transfer speeds were found to be adequate for viewing whole slides in a microscope resembling way. The imaging software used in our study is designed to allow fast web based viewing of enormous montages of aerial and satellite images, which are often much larger than the images that can maximally be produced in virtual microscopy.

The key to the fast web based image viewing is an effective interaction between the server and the client software, which is made possible by the network protocol described here. Both the work done by the server and the transferred amount of data are minimised, which means that a larger number of simultaneous users can be served with the same hardware and network bandwidth. The breast histopathology atlas described in our report is one example of how web based virtual microscopy can be used. Additional applications include web based supplements to research articles published in scientific journals, in addition to supplements to pathology textbooks.

Histopathological case studies and studies describing new histopathological entities will benefit considerably from the possibility of viewing virtual slides of the cases described.

Understanding Your Pathology Report: Breast Cancer

In the same way, pathology textbooks could be made more informative by including virtual slides as web links or DVD disks. In molecular pathology research, studies using tissue microarrays could provide the entire study material viewable as supplemental web based virtual slides. Virtual microscopy could be a useful way of enabling the audience of slide seminars to view the cases before meetings and conferences.

Virtual slides could also be of value in quality control programmes, where it is often difficult and sometimes even impossible to produce enough replicate histological slides for all participants. The publicly available atlas of breast histopathology presented here shows that by using the technology described it is possible to digitise large numbers of histopathological specimens and make them viewable on the web in organised educational applications.


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Take home messages. The technology described here could be used to develop clinically and educationally useful virtual microscopy applications of many types. The authors are grateful to Dr S Toikkanen for the slide collection, from which some rare histopathological entities were obtained. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. Skip to main content. We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you.


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INTRODUCTION

Latest content Current issue Archive Authors About. Log in via Institution. Email alerts. Article Text. Article menu. Original article. A digital atlas of breast histopathology: an application of web based virtual microscopy. Most 10 of 11 of the pathologists, who participated with their own office computers and monitors both CRTs and LCDs , thought that virtual microscopy is well suited to educational applications, and that the image quality is satisfactory. The most appreciated feature of the viewing interface was the overview window: nine of 11 users reported this as a major advantage.

Because this was highly appreciated, especially by the pathologists in training, the previously described quiz mode was added to the atlas website. Two of 11 users reported a slow viewing speed, and both had a measured connection speed less than 2 Mbit. Based on this finding and on our own subjective impressions of the viewing speed as compared with actual measured image data transfer rates, we defined a user friendly scale for rating the client network connection. A connection speed test function based on this scale can be found on the website.

An acceptable viewing speed can be accomplished with a fast home internet connection xDSL , and with a 2 Mbit or faster connection virtual microscopy is very smooth.

With more than carefully selected slides the described virtual slide atlas covers the entire spectrum of breast histopathology. The atlas shows the advantages of virtual slides for educational purposes, and it highlights the benefits of web based virtual microscopy. The main advantage of a virtual slide based approach over conventional digital images is the possibility to view the entire specimen—that is, any part of the tissue section at any magnification. Images in printed textbooks or in conventional digital atlases 13— 15 represent only small selected areas of the tissue section and can only describe the histopathological entity in question to a limited extent.

An educational feature easily applied to virtual microscopy is the option to view the specimens as unknowns—that is, without the diagnosis and textual descriptions. This option was found particularly useful by pathologists in training. The contents of a web based atlas can be updated continuously, and rarities missing from a collection can be included when suitable slides are found. Text descriptions and entity classifications can be updated and adapted to modifications in tumour classifications.

In the present atlas we included only short textual descriptions, and provided direct PubMed links to each entity presented in the atlas. With predefined relevant search terms this feature means that users can easily review the latest research articles on each topic. Before starting to scan slides for the breast histopathology atlas, we made a considerable effort to optimise the image quality of the virtual slides. Several parameters such as choice of the microscope objective, pixel resolution of the CCD camera, autofocus settings, colour temperature, white balance, digital enhancement, and image compression level were balanced to maximise image quality, although still keeping scanning time and web viewing manageable.

With the chosen capture resolution, the total amount of scanned image data in the atlas exceeds 1 TB, but effective image compression reduced the required hard disk storage space to 70 GB. This implies that archiving of virtual slides needed for even a large number of comprehensive atlases is possible and economical with current mainstream computer hardware.

By combining a computer controlled motorised microscope with imaging software from the aerial and satellite imaging industry, slide scanning, image processing, and server archiving could be fully automated. Application development was straightforward and internet transfer speeds were found to be adequate for viewing whole slides in a microscope resembling way. The imaging software used in our study is designed to allow fast web based viewing of enormous montages of aerial and satellite images, which are often much larger than the images that can maximally be produced in virtual microscopy.

The key to the fast web based image viewing is an effective interaction between the server and the client software, which is made possible by the network protocol described here. Both the work done by the server and the transferred amount of data are minimised, which means that a larger number of simultaneous users can be served with the same hardware and network bandwidth.

Grossing Breast Pathology Specimens - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

The breast histopathology atlas described in our report is one example of how web based virtual microscopy can be used. Additional applications include web based supplements to research articles published in scientific journals, in addition to supplements to pathology textbooks.

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Histopathological case studies and studies describing new histopathological entities will benefit considerably from the possibility of viewing virtual slides of the cases described. In the same way, pathology textbooks could be made more informative by including virtual slides as web links or DVD disks. In molecular pathology research, studies using tissue microarrays could provide the entire study material viewable as supplemental web based virtual slides. Virtual microscopy could be a useful way of enabling the audience of slide seminars to view the cases before meetings and conferences.

Virtual slides could also be of value in quality control programmes, where it is often difficult and sometimes even impossible to produce enough replicate histological slides for all participants. The publicly available atlas of breast histopathology presented here shows that by using the technology described it is possible to digitise large numbers of histopathological specimens and make them viewable on the web in organised educational applications.

Take home messages. The technology described here could be used to develop clinically and educationally useful virtual microscopy applications of many types. The authors are grateful to Dr S Toikkanen for the slide collection, from which some rare histopathological entities were obtained. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Breast Pathology

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Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology) Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)
Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology) Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)
Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology) Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)
Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology) Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)
Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology) Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)
Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology) Atlas of Breast Pathology (Current Histopathology)

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